Deadline to Send Aug. 7th

Copy and Paste the Fully Researched Comment Letter below and send as YOUR Comment Letter, you can add comments to it, and/or use it for ideas for your own researched letter. This letter is here to help you however it can.

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We are in Kamehameha Schools EIS Comment Period. To HELP You Must Send an Informative Researched Comment Letter in Step 1 & 2 to HELP Prove Kamehameha School's EIS Draft WILL Have a Negative Impact in Keauhou Bay.

In Step 3 & 4 you CAN speak about personal reasons why you oppose this development.

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Start Copying Fully Researched Comment Letter Directly Below 

To Whom It May Concern,

Please read the scientific proof in this letter and REJECT Kamehameha Schools Environment Impact Statement (EIS) for Keauhou Bay to become a Bungalow Resort.

Please state in your report that a Bungalow Resort WILL have a SERIOUS NEGATIVE IMPACT on Keauhou Bay as stated in all the different researched articles below.

Please, DO NOT risk polluting the water in Keauhou Bay by allowing Kamehameha Schools to develop their bungalow resort project. It is scientifically proven that developments pollute nearby waters both during and after development

Below are scientific articles written by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),  Global Coral Reef Alliance, Hawaii Government, and many other professional organizations, that have studied and shown that developments have ALWAYS polluted the water in EVERY coastal development area.

Does this EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) have any kind of reports and studies on how the endangered species and marine life will handle the extra pollution due to development, and the golf course runoff?  Keauhou Bay is their habitat and this development WILL be CHANGING an Entire Ecosystem.


 ENDANGERED SPECIES CONSERVATION IMPACTED BY DEVELOPMENT

In the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under Section 2 (b), "To provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved." This would be Keauhou Bay.

The Green Sea Turtle swims in Keauhou Bay weekly and the monk seal has also been seen swimming and resting in Keauhou Bay. Both of these marine animals are on the endangered species list.

Endangered Species Act

"Section 2. Findings, Purposes, and Policy

(4) the United States has pledged itself as a sovereign state in the international community to conserve to the extent practicable the various species of fish or wildlife and plants facing extinction, pursuant to—

(b) PURPOSES.—The purposes of this Act are to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species, and to take such steps as may be appropriate to achieve the purposes of the treaties and conventions set forth in subsection (a) of this section." 

This was taken from https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/national/endangered-species-conservation/endangered-species-ac

 

FEDERALLY PROTECTED GREEN SEA TURTLES WILL BE AFFECTED

The green sea turtle is federally protected and can be seen in Keauhou Bay weekly. 

The following article that states: "POLLUTED RUNOFF IN HAWAII ENDANGERS GREEN SEA TURTLES” 

Why does Hawaii have a runoff problem?

Historically, in the tropics of Hawaii, precipitation was absorbed into the soil, according to the Clean Water Branch of Hawaii's Department of Health. Any potential pollution or contaminants on the ground surface would get pushed into the soil by the rain, and plant roots and microbes would help break down the pollution into less dangerous components. However, with urban and agricultural development, less and less of the pollution gets pulled into the soil, and more of it gets washed out into storm drains. From there, the pollutants make their way to streams, rivers and the ocean that surrounds Hawaii. According to the state agency, most of these contaminants are nutrients from fertilizer, bacteria from animal waste, oil, garbage and yard waste... 

If polluted runoff reaches the ocean, it can wreak havoc on marine life, including endangered green sea turtles." Taken from https://www.chemservice.com/news/polluted-runoff-in-hawaii-endangers-green-sea-turtles/

Allowing this development  WILL POLLUTE Keauhou Bay.   The above article, written in 2014 (because runoff water from developments were polluting the ocean even then!!!) states this fact clearly. Keauhou Bay is home to countless sea creatures such as the protected green sea turtle, spotted eagle rays, manta rays, octopus, dolphins, fish, coral, monk seals, and more and that will ALL be harmed by the severe pollution runoff that WILL happen because developments have been shown to ALWAYS pollute the water is that is nearby.

The Green Sea Turtle is protected by more than one law. "All sea turtles in Hawai‘i are protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and additionally protected by Hawai‘i Revised Statutes Chapter 195D (HRS) and Hawai‘i Administrative Rules (HAR) 13-124." This information was taken from this site https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/species/sea-turtles/ 

 

THE ENDANGERED MONK SEAL WILL BE AFFECTED

Keauhou Bay is known as a RESTING AREA for the ENDANGERED MONK SEAL.   If another resort is allowed to be built, in addition to the pollution, it will also bring a lot more people down to Keauhou Bay. This increases the chances of a resting monk seal being disturbed by humans trying to get close, take “selfie” photos, and being generally uninformed and harmful. Please see article on Selfie Culture and its harmful effects below.

Has the EIS done any research on what an increased population would do in such a small area, and what will happen to the endangered species that live there? With a significantly increased population their habitat of Keauhou Bay will likely be changed forever.

This information is from a NOAA Scientist; "Study shows selfie culture impacts how people behave when posting images of an endangered species on social media. There’s a seal on the beach! Let’s go get a 'selfie'!” That must have been what nearly 18 percent of people on Instagram thought before approaching an endangered species. 

In a recent study, NOAA scientists used social media to monitor human activities around endangered Hawaiian monk seals. They discovered that human disturbance is more common than they thought." https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/endangered-hawaiian-monk-seals-cry-foul-over-selfies 

NOAA clearly states a high population in a place where monk seals and sea turtles habitat can be a serious disturbance for these endangered species. 

"Hawaiian monk seals are protected federally by the ESA and the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as well as locally by Hawai‘i Revised Statutes (HRS) Chapter 195D and Hawai‘i Administrative Rules (HAR) 13-124." This was taken from https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/hawaiian-monk-seal/

 

Keauhou Bay is the monk seals and the green sea turtle’s habitat. Allowing a bungalow resort to be developed in Keauhou Bay, the habitat of these endangered species, is to threaten their life and habitat with golf course runoff pollution, as well as development pollution. By threatening their habitat, and hence their lives, this development goes completely against the Endangered Species Act of 1973.

The verbiage in the Endangered Species Act states, "to conserve”.  In this case, “to conserve” would be to protect the land around Keauhou Bay from developments that destroy the habitat of these endangered species with pollution and runoff. 

Does this EIS have any reports on the endangered species that frequent Keauhou Bay? This is their habitat and it needs to be “conserved”.  

Under the Conservation Program there should be research done on endangered species and their associated ecosystems. A large bungalow resort development WILL FOREVER CHANGE THIS ECOSYSTEM.

"§195D-5  Conservation programs.  (a)  The department shall conduct research on indigenous aquatic life, wildlife, and land plants, and on endangered species and their associated ecosystems, and shall utilize the land acquisition and other authority vested in the department to carry out programs for the conservation, management, and protection of such species and their associated ecosystems."  https://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol03_Ch0121-0200D/HRS0195D/HRS_0195D-0005.htm  

Also, under this same Conservation program, "(2)  Taking such action as may be necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not jeopardize the continued existence of threatened or endangered species." https://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol03_Ch0121-0200D/HRS0195D/HRS_0195D-0005.htm

Please consider that developing a Kamehameha Schools Bungalow Resort in Keauhou Bay WILL threaten endangered species due to the unavoidable development and golf course pollution runoff that would be caused by removing the all the trees that currently serving as a natural pollution filter, and replacing the land with housing, cars, humans, and waste.  There would also be tremendous runoff damage into Keauhou Bay and the surrounding area during the building phase of this enormous project.

 

GOLF COURSE POLLUTION KILLS MARINE LIFE AND DRASTICALLY CHANGES ECOSYSTEMS

”The golf industry uses approximately 50 pesticide active ingredients, including chlorpyrifos—an insecticide that is banned for residential use by the EPA due to developmental hazards. Having to trim golf turf to low heights also makes it even more vulnerable to pests, which leads to more pesticide use." https://rainorshinegolf.com/pages/the-environmental-impact-of-golf-courses

These pesticides will be in the pollution runoff that will enter Keauhou Bay more severely should the natural habitat of the trees be removed and replaced with pavement. This is unavoidable!

Please read from Wikipedia, "
Most drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge (often covered by a grating) into a canal, river, lake, reservoir, sea or ocean. Other than catch basins, typically there are no treatment facilities in the piping system."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storm_drain#:~:text=Most%20drains%20have%20a%20single,discharge%20into%20individual%20dry%20wells

The pavement from this development will cause pollution to runoff into Keauhou Bay because this treed land that will become a housing development is situated directly between the golf course and the Bay. These trees, which absorb all the pollution from the golf course is the BEST AND ONLY PROTECTION POLLUTION FILTER Keauhou Bay has from the golf course pesticides, fertilizer and weed killer.  See the below paragraph for further references.

See page 2 at:  https://health.hawaii.gov/epo/files/2013/09/Stormwater-MS4-Presentation-HEF-7.15.14.pdf  where the Hawai'i government states that Natural Ground Cover has 10% runoff, where has development has 55% runoff. 

These trees and land are saving monk seals and green sea turtles habitat from the golf course pollution and this land MUST BE PRESERVED and CONSERVED as the natural protector for Keauhou Bay and for these endangered species habitat.

Under Section 2 (b) of the Endangered Species Act - Keauhou Bay MUST BECOME A CONSERVATION AREA for these endangered species. It is currently their habitat, and to allow a large resort development to be built above this bay clearly threatens the lives of these endangered species by allowing golf course toxic pollution and development pollution to run into these species natural habitat of Keauhou Bay.

 

ALGAE BLOOMS KILL CORAL AND MARINE LIFE

The trees that are slated to be cleared for the development further protect Keauhou Bay from algae blooms that have been proven to be caused by pollution that is runoff from fertilizer and weed killer.  

When there is heavy rain the land above the bay has a greater runoff than normal. Without the trees, the runoff from the golf course pollution will pour into the Bay likely causing frequent algae blooms.

Algae blooms have been shown to kill coral and marine life as stated in the many articles that will follow.

One of these articles is from the Global Coral Reef Alliance. They have researched the effects on reefs before and after a golf course developments. Though this development is not a golf course development, it is located just below a golf course and exposes the bay to the pollution from the golf course by removing the proven natural filter of the trees and natural ecosystem. 

Has this EIS done any kind of research about the algae blooms that happen after a serious storm because of the golf course runoff pollution?

This information was taken from Global Coral Reef Alliance and it is an actual study on the how coral and marine life are affected before and after development.  It's titled, "Golf courses kill coral reefs and fisheries: harmful algae blooms and disease cause by nutrient runoff from golf course development on Guana Cay, Abaco, Bahamas

Introduction: Bahamas coral reef deterioration

This study is thought the first ever to evaluate the health of coral reef ecosystems and fisheries before and after a golf course development..The vast majority of corals have died from a combination of factors including global warming, new diseases, land-based sources of pollution.. ." https://www.globalcoral.org/golf-courses-kill-coral-reefs-and-fisheries-harmful-algae-blooms-and-disease-caused-by-nutrient-runoff-from-golf-course-development-on-guana-cay-abaco-bahamas/

If you allow a Bungalow Development in Keauhou Bay you WILL be agreeing to pollute this bay for years to come and COMPLETELY CHANGING and possibly DESTROYING KEAUHOU BAY'S ECOSYSTEM.

Another study by the Coral Reef Alliance titled, "Golf course fertilizer runoff causes nutrient enrichment leading to harmful algae blooms on a Bahamian coral reef.

“...After construction new algae blooms appeared nearest the golf course green, smothering corals in adjacent reefs, along with sharply increased coral diseases..." https://www.globalcoral.org/golf-course-fertilizer-runoff-causes-nutrient-enrichment-leading-to-harmful-algae-blooms-on-a-bahamian-coral-reef

Does this EIS have any studies or reports on the extra runoff pollution due to clearing land and adding pavement?

This needs to be fully assessed because you will be changing an entire ecosystem to build a bungalow resort. It rains in Keauhou Bay many nights out of the year and this kind of pollution will kill the beautiful and necessary coral in the Bay.

FURTHERMORE: ”If there are toxic algal blooms, like red tide, or man-made contaminants, like pesticides or detergents in the water, those toxins are contained within the bubbles of sea foam. When those bubbles pop, the toxins can become airborne and compromise the air that is breathed in that location." https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2023/03/31/what-sea-foam/

 

ENGINE POLLUTION CAUSES ISSUES IN THE OCEAN

Does this EIS have any detailed traffic studies for the increase in cars that will be added to this already severely traffic area they want to build their 150 room bungalow resort in? Have they done any studies on the pollution these cars WILL have in Keauhou Bay?

Because this Bungalow Resort could have over 150 extra cars and over 300 or more extra people in and out of Keauhou Bay, what traffic and increased population studies have they done? There will be employees with cars, guests with cars, visitors with cars.  At times this would range to over 200 cars (likely more), coming in and out of, and parking above Keauhou Bay thereby causing serious car population issues because of all these added cars right next to the bay.

The article below is from NOAA regarding motor vehicle engines and pollution to the sea.

What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean?

Most ocean pollution begins on land.

"Millions of motor vehicle engines drop small amounts of oil each day onto roads and parking lots. Much of this, too, makes its way to the sea.

Some water pollution actually starts as air pollution, which settles into waterways and oceans. Dirt can be a pollutant. Top soil or silt from fields or construction sites can run off into waterways, harming fish and wildlife habitats." https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/pollution.html#:~:text=Millions%20of%20motor%20vehicle%20engines,Dirt%20can%20be%20a%20pollutant.

Land-Based Runoff Remains Top Source of Oil in the Ocean, Says New Report Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects

News Release September 28, 2022

WASHINGTON — Oil in runoff, primarily from cities and vehicles, is the top source of oil entering the ocean, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. In North American waters, estimated ocean oil pollution from land-based runoff is up to 20 times higher than it was 20 years ago, and oil spills, natural oil seeps, and discharge from oil and gas operations remain major sources of pollution. The report recommends actions that government and others should take to minimize oil pollution, and calls for sustained research funding to better understand how oil reaches and affects ocean environments. https://www.nationalacademies.org/news/2002/05/oil-in-the-sea-inputs-fates-and-effects#:~:text=WASHINGTON%20%2D%2D%20Nearly%2085%20percent,pipeline%20spills%2C%20says%20a%20new

 

The Impact Of Stormwater – Car Emissions

"Car emissions are not limited to exhaust fumes that contribute to air pollution. They can also leak automotive fluid and release heavy metals that can contribute to stormwater pollution, contaminating local waterways." https://www.stormwatershepherds.org.au/blog/the-impact-of-stormwater-car-emissions/

 

NOISE POLLUTION’S HARMFUL EFFECT ON MARINE LIFE

Does this EIS have any reports on the noise pollution that will happen and what it could do to marine life in Keauhou Bay during development?

Because if you allow this Bungalow Resort to be developed you will increase constant noise in this bay for years to come and, "Noise Pollution Research shows that underwater noise from construction, shipping and naval vessels significantly impacts the natural behavior of cetaceans and many other marine species.  This can be seen when mass beaching events occur or breeding success is diminished." 

The above information was taken from the Ocean Conservation Trust https://oceanconservationtrust.org/ocean-advocacy/think-ocean/ways-to-think-ocean/

 

How Does Noise Pollution Harm Marine Species?

"However, over the past few decades, noise pollution in the marine environment has increased dramatically and is threatening the natural soundscape of the marine environment. Ships, seismic surveys, explosions, construction, and sonar devices have made the once peaceful environment into a loud, chaotic home which is extremely damaging for marine wildlife. This type of pollution is often overlooked in comparison to others but its impacts are now being documented across all types of marine ecosystems." https://earth.org/noise-pollution-in-the-ocean/

If you allow this resort the amount of people in this bay will fully increase and, "Hawai‘i’s recent history has shown that the state’s growing population can have an adverse effect on nearshore fish populations. Protecting this important resource for the enjoyment of future generations is essential. Ideally, management of the resource should balance the needs of different user groups, but the welfare of the marine environment on which its inhabitants depend must be the most important consideration." This was taken from Hawaii's own Division of Aquatic Resources https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/marine-managed-areas/hawaii-marine-life-conservation-districts/#:~:text=Snorkeling%20and%20SCUBA%20diving%20are,effect%20on%20nearshore%20fish%20populations

What is ocean noise?

"Ocean noise refers to sounds made by human activities that can interfere with or obscure the ability of marine animals to hear natural sounds in the ocean.

Many marine organisms rely on their ability to hear for their survival. Sound is a highly efficient means of communication underwater and is the primary way that many marine species gather and understand information about their environment. Many aquatic animals use sound to find prey, locate mates and offspring, avoid predators, guide their navigation and locate habitat, as well as to listen and communicate with each other.

Over the last century, human activities such as shipping, recreational boating, and energy exploration have increased along our coasts, offshore, and deep ocean environments. Noise from these activities can travel long distances underwater, leading to increases and changes in ocean noise levels in many coastal and offshore habitats.

These rising noise levels can negatively impact ocean animals and ecosystems. Higher noise levels can reduce the ability of animals to communicate with potential mates, other group members, their offspring, or feeding partners. Noise can also reduce an ocean animal's ability to hear environmental cues that are vital for survival, including those key to avoiding predators, finding food, and navigating to preferred habitats."   https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/ocean-noise.html

 

LEARN FROM OTHERS: 
RUN-OFF FROM DEVELOPMENT KILLS

The Chesapeake Bay has a foundation that is trying to save their bay due to runoff pollution that was caused by developments. Chesapeake Bay is a lot bigger than Keauhou Bay. If it's being drastically hurt by runoff water from developments, Keauhou Bay waters won't stand a chance if development above the bay is allowed.  Keauhou Bay is a much smaller ecosystem.  

This Article is by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Saving a National Treasure states, "...runoff is a significant source of harmful nitrogen pollution that continues to grow…

As rainwater and snowmelt run off our streets, parking lots, lawns, and other surfaces, they pick up pet waste, pesticides, fertilizer, oil, and other contaminants. If the draining water doesn’t evaporate or soak into the ground where it can be filtered, it flushes straight into local creeks, rivers, and the Chesapeake Bay, adversely affecting water quality and aquatic life.

Only 10 to 20 percent of rain that falls in forests, fields, and other natural areas runs off, with the rest absorbed by soil and plants, where it is filtered before reaching aquifers or local waterways. (Right now Keauhou Bay has a lot of trees and is very natural, this is what helps stop runoff.) By contrast, close to 100 percent of the rain that falls on concrete and other hard surfaces produces runoff. One inch of rain falling on an acre of hardened surface produces 27,000 gallons of runoff.

Stormwater runoff pollution threatens Chesapeake Bay and its rivers and streams…Polluted runoff is one of the most harmful sources of pollution to the Bay and its waters. And much of it starts right in the urban and suburban neighborhoods where we live."   https://www.cbf.org/issues/polluted-runoff/index.html#:~:text=Besides%20carrying%20pollutants%20that%20harm,them%20are%20placed%20in%20jeopardy.

If that is what runoff is doing to the Chesapeake Bay, the effects of runoff will be even more devastating to Keauhou Bay due to its size and  fragility.

 

MANTA RAY HABITAT, CORAL REEF BLEACHING,  & MARINE LIFE ~ THE DEVASTATING EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENT ON THE OCEAN

Are there any reports in this EIS about what the impact to the coral, marine life, plankton especially zooplankton will be because of this development?

The studies below show that developments kill coral, and marine life. Zooplankton are part of this marine life and they are also killed and negatively affected. Zooplankton are food for manta rays. Manta rays are in Keauhou Bay every night to eat zooplankton, and are often seen here during the day as well.

Allowing this bay developed will also be a death sentence for many types of marine life including planktons. There is NO WAY to stop this from happening due to the fact that polluted runoff rain water from developments can't be fully stopped. This has been shown to happen in ALL coastal developments.

Please read the Scientific articles below. 

It's Been Proven Developments Severely Pollute Nearby Waters

Article by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, AKA NOAA,  "Coral Bleaching is occurring more frequently in Hawai'i. Across the Hawaiian Archipelago, coral bleaching has increased in frequency and severity since  1996. The last major bleaching event in 2014-2015 had catastrophic Impacts state-wide…

This was the third major bleaching episode in Hawaiʻi over the last 6 years. The frequency of these events is unprecedented in the archipelago. NOAA scientists and partners have determined that the key drivers of the bleaching were environmental factors (such as heat stress, depth, and surface light) and human impacts (sewage effluent and urban run-off). " https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/cautionary-tale-2019-coral-bleaching-event-hawaii#:~:text=Coral%20Bleaching%20Is%20Occurring%20more,had%20catastrophic%20impacts%20state%2Dwide.

This article is by the Coral Reef Alliance here in Hawai'i. "An ecosystem under threat Hawaiʻi’s reefs face major global and local threats including climate change, overfishing, and sediment and nutrient pollution caused by sewage and stormwater runoff...

When it rains, flash floods carry stormwater and large amounts of sediment downstream to the ocean. Just offshore, once-thriving coral reefs are now struggling to survive." https://coral.org/en/where-we-work/hawaiian-islands/#:~:text=Hawai%CA%BBi's%20reefs%20face%20major%20global,into%20Hawai%CA%BBi's%20waterways%20every%20day.

This article states that  runoff is a leading source in coral degradation. Article by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, AKA NOAA, "Land-based sources of pollution are a leading cause of coral reef degradation in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Water quality is impacted by urban runoff, failing sewage systems, unpaved roads, farms, land clearing, and development." https://www.coris.noaa.gov/monitoring/status_report/docs/Hawaii_status_report_forweb.pdf

This article is a Research Article by PLOS ONE and their motto is,"We're driving change in research integrity and publication ethics." This is some of their article information, "Coral taxonomy and local stressors drive bleaching prevalence across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2019...

We found little evidence for acclimation by reefs to thermal stress in the main Hawaiian Islands. Moreover, our findings illustrate how detrimental effects of local anthropogenic stressors, such as tourism and urban run-off, may be exacerbated under high thermal stress. In light of the forecasted increase in severity and frequency of bleaching events, future mitigation of both local and global stressors is a high priority for the future of corals in Hawai‘i." https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0269068

The coral all over Hawai'i has had extremely high mortality rates, due to developments near ocean areas throughout the years, and development in Keauhou Bay will be devastating to the coral, reef fish, and all aquatic life there.  Manta Rays need to eat 5 times their body weight in zooplankton daily. Their population will be severely affected should the plankton die. Please see the cited information below. 

"SO, HOW MUCH PLANKTON DOES YOUR AVERAGE MANTA RAY EAT? 19,200,000. Nineteen million two hundred thousand, give or take a few thousand.

That is the number of plankton pieces a ten-foot manta ray must consume weekly to stay alive."

The above information was taken from Manta Ray Advocates https://mantarayadvocates.com/how-much-plankton-do-mantas-eat/

Coral reefs are known to be highly negatively impacted by developments because, "Impacts from land-based sources of pollution including coastal development,...can impede coral growth and reproduction, disrupt overall ecological function, and cause disease and mortality in sensitive species.https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/coral-pollution.html#:~:text=Impacts%20from%20land%2Dbased%20sources,and%20mortality%20in%20sensitive%20species.

Article by Environmental Evidence, "Coastal development and runoff lead to sedimentation, which directly impacts coral recruitment, growth, mortality, and ecosystem services that coral reefs provide." https://environmentalevidencejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13750-020-00200-0#:~:text=Coastal%20development%20and%20runoff%20lead,services%20that%20coral%20reefs%20provide.

Developments can't fully stop polluting because runoff is from rain during development and after. Article by NOAA, "One of the most significant threats to reefs is pollution. Land-based runoff and pollution discharges can result from dredging, coastal development…This runoff may contain sediments, nutrients, chemicals, insecticides, oil and debris. 

When some pollutants enter the water, nutrient levels can increase, promoting the rapid growth of algae and other organisms that can smother coral." https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/coral09_humanthreats.html#:~:text=This%20runoff%20may%20contain%20sediments,organisms%20that%20can%20smother%20corals.

Another article by NOAA, "Coral reefs also are affected by leaking fuels, anti-fouling paints and coatings, and other chemicals that enter the water… (All of those are show up in every development project.)

Among the most damaging pollutants on coral reefs is sediment, which can remain suspended in the water or be deposited on the coral surface (i.e., turbidity and sedimentation, respectively) and can contain toxicants, pathogens, and nutrients, all of which impact coral growth, recruitment, and survivalhttps://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/coral09_humanthreats.html#:~:text=This%20runoff%20may%20contain%20sediments,into%20the%20atmosphere%20within%20days.   

It's Been Proven Resort Developments KILL Marine Life

This article by MarinBIO states, "Zooplankton are also sensitive to their environment and like phytoplankton—a change in zooplankton concentration can indicate a subtle environmental change. Zooplankton are highly responsive to nutrient levels, temperatures, pollution, food that is not nutritious, levels of light, and increases in predation. As well as providing an essential link in the marine food chain (which is an understatement), the diversity of species, amount of biomass and abundance of zooplankton communities can be used to determine the health of an ecosystem...

Here is another article that shocking shows that in a very short time, big changes can occur due to runoff.  A development will hurt and kill plankton, by Frontiers in Marine Science,  "Effects of an experimental terrestrial runoff on the components of the plankton food web in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon The main result observed in the present study was that the effects of the simulated terrestrial runoff spread along the plankton food web, significantly affecting all trophic levels of the natural plankton community studied. This occurred in a relatively short time considering that the experiment lasted less than three weeks. The lower light availability in the terrestrial runoff treatment compared to the control resulted in a net decrease of approximately one-third of Chl-a concentration and phytoplankton abundance over the entire experiment." https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/marine-science/articles/10.3389/fmars.2023.1200757/full

The ecosystem is fragile and interconnected as is stated in this article: ”Zooplankton are also affected by levels of pH, heavy metals, calcium, and aluminum. Nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus will affect the prey of zooplankton (like algae, protozoa and bacteria), indirectly affecting zooplankton survival. Scientists are still putting together pieces of the zooplankton puzzle. Some questions include how nutrient levels found in algae can influence the growth and behavior of zooplankton. Another question important to marine and human life is how toxins and pollution will affect this crucial link in the food chain" This information is in article by MarineBIO.    https://www.marinebio.org/creatures/zooplankton/#:~:text=Zooplankton%20are%20also%20sensitive%20to,light%2C%20and%20increases%20in%20predation.

A research article by Environmental Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency that discusses, "Toxic Effects of Pollutants on Plankton:  There are four main sources of aquatic pollution: industrial wastes, municipal wastes, agricultural run-off, and accidental spillage. Non-point sources, such as automobile exhausts, add appreciable amounts of pollutants to air that may enter aquatic systems in rainfall or dry fall-out. These sources add pesticides, heavy metals, oil, petroleum products, and a large number of organic and inorganic compounds to water. Lakes and oceans serve as sinks for many pollutants. Plankton comprise a large portion of the living matter in natural waters and function in biogeochemical cycles. They are affected by pollutants, transfer them to sediments and other organisms, and function in their biological transformation." 

https://scope.dge.carnegiescience.edu/SCOPE_12/SCOPE_12_3.6_chapter12_257-274.pdf

All the above articles show that development of Keauhou Bay WILL hurt plankton life and marine life in the bay because pollutant runoff is inevitable and unavoidable during construction and afterwords. The manta ray food source will likely disappear. This will be devastating for the manta ray populations. Furthermore, if manta rays die or leave the area, the loss will in turn affect many lively hoods from locals on the island who depend on the manta ray tour for their income. 

 

HUMAN POPULATION INCREASES LINKED DIRECTLY TO CORAL DEATH

Does this EIS have any reports on their resort adding to the population increase that happens during IRONMAN?

"On average, each Ironman racer brings three people with them to the Big Island. Counting members of the media, VIPs who come from around the globe to watch and the triathlons partners, there likely be more than 6,300 people descending on Kona..." https://bigislandnow.com/2023/10/07/ironman-2023-in-kona-shines-spotlight-on-some-of-best-women-triathletes-in-the-world/

And "Resident dissatisfaction with tourists is multifaceted: The overwhelming majority (92%) of locals felt visitors were not educated enough on protecting Hawaii’s natural environment and local resources; other factors include the impact of the vacation rental industry and ignorance of the residents’ quality of life." https://www.triathlete.com/culture/news/kona-locals-ask-ironman-visitors-for-respect/

Where are the EIS reports on human density? Below are reports that show human population destroys coral reefs.

"The number of people living on the coasts has rapidly increased in recent decades, causing significant development of coastal areas. Coastal development can negatively impact the ocean through the destruction of coastal marine habitat and through run-off of sediments and pollution.

-Coastal development involves activities such as the creation of harbors, stabilization of shorelines, and aquaculture that involve the destruction of sensitive marine habitats such as mangroves, coral reefs, and seagrass beds. 

-Coastal development may cause the run-off of sediments into coastal habitats, which can smother corals or seaweeds and reduce the amount of light available for photosynthesis. Losses of primary producers and important habitat-forming species such as corals can negatively impact entire food webs."

The above information was taken from the Education Development Center, INC, from their Coastal Development page called Ocean Tracks https://oceantracks.org/library/human-impacts/coastal-development#:~:text=Coastal%20development%20may%20cause%20the,negatively%20impact%20entire%20food%20webs.

There is nothing Kamehameha Schools can do to their development that can stop the guests of this possible Bungalow Resort from going to Keauhou Bay. Human traffic WILL seriously increase if this resort is allowed to be built and the marine life will be negatively affected by it. Marine life will suffer from this development as stated in this letter in many different scientific reported articles.

If you allow this resort the amount of people in this bay will fully increase and, "Hawai‘i’s recent history has shown that the state’s growing population can have an adverse effect on nearshore fish populations. Protecting this important resource for the enjoyment of future generations is essential. Ideally, management of the resource should balance the needs of different user groups, but the welfare of the marine environment on which its inhabitants depend must be the most important consideration." This was taken from Hawaii's own Division of Aquatic Resources https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/marine-managed-areas/hawaii-marine-life-conservation-districts/#:~:text=Snorkeling%20and%20SCUBA%20diving%20are,effect%20on%20nearshore%20fish%20populations

It's Been Proven an Increase in Human Population Destroys Coral Reefs 

If a Bungalow Resort is allowed to be built in Keauhou Bay, it will bring a serious increase in human traffic. "Easily visible trends in human population dynamics combined with well-established and tested ecological theory give a clear, intuitive, yet quantifiable guide to the severity of survival challenges faced by coral reefs. Management challenges and required actions can be clearly shown and, contrary to frequent claims, no scientific ambiguity exists with regard to the serious threat posed to coral reefs by humankind's continued numerical increase." This is in the article by National Library of Medicine National center for Biotechnology Information PubMed.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33293007/#:~:text=Denser%20coastal%20populations%20and%20greater,to%20more%20runoff%20and%20siltation.

This article is by ABC NEWS, "This is how tourists are destroying coral reefs in Hawaii. The less people at a certain site, the more coral there are, the research found. The millions of tourists who flock to the shores of Hawaii every year are wreaking havoc on its natural environment -- especially the coral reefs, which are at risk all over the world, a new study said. The most popular coral reefs on the Hawaiian islands are likely being degraded by the very visitors they attract, according to a study published Monday in Nature Sustainability."  https://abcnews.go.com/US/hawaiian-coral-reefs-degrading-popular-tourist-sites-scientists/story?id=96308858#:~:text=The%20less%20people%20at%20a,there%20are%2C%20the%20research%20found.&text=The%20millions%20of%20tourists%20who,world%2C%20a%20new%20study%20said.

By allowing this development you are stressing an already fragile Eco-system.  The small bay is currently used by many locals for boating, fishing, canoeing, paddle boarding, snorkeling, manta night dives, surfing, and swimming. We know, and research shoes, that more people cause more damage.  The area simply cannot afford or support this development.

"Denser coastal populations and greater wealth will lead to reef degradation by coastal construction. Denser populations inland will lead to more runoff and siltation. Effects of human perturbations can be explored with meta-population theory since they translate to increases in patch-mortality and decreases in patch-colonization (= regeneration). All such changes will result in a habitat with overall fewer settled patches, so fewer live reefs." This information was taken from Science Direct https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0065288120300328#:~:text=Aquaculture%20will%20alleviate%20some%20fishing,to%20more%20runoff%20and%20siltation.

Another article by Nature Sustainability, "Coral reefs and coastal tourism in Hawaii Coral reefs are popular for their vibrant biodiversity. By combining web-scraped Instagram data from tourists and high-resolution live coral cover maps in Hawaii, we find that, regionally, coral reefs both attract and suffer from coastal tourism. Higher live coral cover attracts reef visitors, but that visitation contributes to subsequent reef degradation. Such feedback loops threaten the highest quality reefs, highlighting both their economic value and the need for effective conservation management." https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-022-01021-4.epdf?sharing_token=wsakgQNhaJhjJAnWAq453tRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0PyGzA5lc_H0O1zcHNIP3ASnhcgKRy6_vKLPw49dbmBYoXSg3Y1MgQiGBZsapdGUHi7O1SLbu9x5Pr3xED4Kxl4T0sJlvgQ1a72ZRt3rUbraxpodJd2AoNlSmWSuxB7JjEDdpJj8OGJpx71TJWdCfXvFKJlZYeNdcJj3Sw_dnaUg5lZlhcjPBDImmaH15yqT5Q%3D&tracking_referrer=abcnews.go.com

 

INFRASTRUCTURE AND RESOURCES ON AN ISLAND ALREADY HIGHLY IMPACTED AND STRUGGLING FOR ANSWERS

Has the EIS done any research or reports on the Resources and Infrastructure it will need for a bungalow resort?

There are many big housing developments currently under construction in Kailua Kona, Waikoloa Village,  Hilo, Puna, Ocean View and Volcano. The entire Big Island has construction projects already in progress.

Has Kamehameha Schools EIS done any kind of reports or surveys to know if Big Island has the Resources and Infrastructures for their resort development? 

"Hotel waste management refers to all the practices and processes that hotels implement to handle and dispose of the multiple types of waste generated on their premises. Worldwide, hotels produce almost 300,000 tonnes of waste each year.https://www.homebiogas.com/blog/hotels-waste-management/

As of now, the Big Island's Resources and Infrastructure are having serious negative issues and many more developments that have been approved are not even completed as of yet, which means our island’s resources and infrastructure will be taxed even more severely in the near future.

Please read the below articles that prove Big Island does not have the resources or infrastructure for a 143-Unit Bungalow Resort Development at Keauhou Bay.  On Hawai’i Island, we are already struggling to meet the increasing need for resources and infrastructure. 

 

Big Island Now poll No. 27 results: More than one solution needed to help extend life of West Hawai‘i landfill

September 17, 2023 

The West Hawai’i Sanitary Landfill, the only remaining landfill on the Big Island, is forecast to reach capacity within the next 20 to 25 years.

The West Hawai‘i landfill became the island’s only one after the Hilo Landfill closed three years ago. It only has about 20 to 25 years left before it can no longer be used to store rubbish.

https://bigislandnow.com/2023/09/17/big-island-now-poll-no-27-results-more-than-one-solution-needed-to-help-extend-life-of-west-hawaii-landfill/

A County commission drafts ordinance aiming to ban recyclables at West Hawai‘i landfill

By Megan Moseley September 6, 2023 

Hawai‘i County’s Environmental Management Commission is developing an ordinance that aims to prohibit the amount of recyclable materials ending up in the island’s only working landfill.

During a commission meeting on July 26, Ramzi Mansour, Hawai’i County Director of Environmental Management, told commissioners the West Hawai‘i Sanitary Landfill only has 20 to 25 years left before it reaches capacity.

With the Hilo Landfill permanently closed in 2020, the clock is ticking for the island’s sole dump. Commission chairperson Georjean Adams said it’s a good time to start looking into solutions.

Adams said the proposed ordinance is in its early stages and is more about getting the conversation started about how to prevent unnecessary, or recyclable items — green waste, metals, plastics, paper, paperboard and glass — from ending up in the rubbish dump, located off Queen Ka‘ahumanu Highway in Waikōloa.

“Trying to site a new landfill is close to impossible,” Adams said. “So what are we going to do? So I was looking around, and the commission agreed, to look deeply into the idea of diverting the recyclables out and at least slow the filling up of the landfill.”

The proposed ordinance refers to the 2019 Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan that commits the county to “divert, as much as feasible, commercial and municipal solid waste, including but not limited to green waste, metals, plastics, paper, paperboard, and glass to help achieve goals related to climate resiliency, renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, and zero waste.”

https://bigislandnow.com/2023/09/06/new-draft-ordinance-aims-to-ban-recyclables-at-west-hawaii-landfill/

Time’s Up  For Landfills

‘Gentle’ demolition strategies can help preserve resources

PAULA BENDER April 2, 2024

As Hawai‘i government officials grapple with the challenge of limited landfill space statewide, federal restrictions set in place by the Environmental Protection Agency are ruling out possible locations that were once considered for new landfills.

Hawaii Act 73 states landfills must be located at least half a mile from residential areas; are prohibited from being located in areas with heavy rain and steep slopes, as well as agricultural and/or conservation lands; above aquifers; 300 feet beyond streams; and 1,000 feet beyond the ocean.

New landfills are also now prohibited from being created in tsunami inundation zones, 100-year flood zones and wetlands. There are also concerns that landfills near airports will attract birds, resulting in damage to aircraft and fatalities among pilots and passengers.

The City & County of Honolulu is in the process of identifying its next landfill and it doesn’t want one any bigger or more active than absolutely necessary.

https://buildingindustryhawaii.com/2024/04/times-up-for-landfills/

Drought Conditions On Hawaiʻi Island Prompt Water Supply Message

by Big Island Video News
on Oct 5, 2023 at 3:59 pm

 (BIVN) – With moderate to severe drought conditions being reported across Hawaiʻi island, local water department officials issued a statement this week on the need for customers to use drinking water wisely.

Most of Hawaiʻi island is under “Moderate Drought” conditions, according to the latest information from the U.S. Drought Monitor. There is an area under “Abnormally Dry” conditions in South Kona, however there are other, small pockets on the Big Island that are under “Severe Drought”. There is even a small spot of “Extreme Drought” in the South Point area of Kaʻū.

“The National Weather Service’s forecast calls for the existing drought conditions to expand over the entire island and intensify over the upcoming months due to the ongoing El Niño event,” reported the Hawaiʻi County Department of Water Supply. “Peak dryness is expected to occur from around January through February 2024. The El Niño event will likely persist well into spring 2024.”

From a Water Supply news release:

https://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2023/10/05/drought-conditions-on-hawai%CA%BBi-island-prompt-water-supply-message/

U.S.

Hawaii is "on the verge of a greater catastrophe," locals say, as water crisis continues

By Li Cohen

Updated on: April 11, 2024 / 8:23 AM EDT / CBS News

 And recent years have seen compounding problems: less rain, leading to significant droughts, and repeated jet fuel leaks and PFAS chemical spills contaminating water systems. All of this significantly limits available water use for locals, many of whom say tourism is only worsening the situation. Just months ago, the world's largest surfing wave pool opened up on the island — filled with freshwater.

"They're not using it to drink or to support life, they're using it to make money. They're commodifying it," said Healani Sonoda-Pale, who is Native Hawaiian and a member of advocacy group O'ahu Water Protectors. "… We are on the verge of a greater catastrophe." 

"We are in a water crisis, that has to be made very clear," Wayne Tanaka, director of Sierra Club of Hawai'i, told CBS News, saying that if the reasons for this crisis aren't soon addressed, "We may come to a point where we have to decide … who gets water and who doesn't."

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/hawaii-water-crisis-climate-change/

Because this is an island, parts need to be shipped. The power plant currently has generators that are not working, and because of this (and other reasons), the Big Island needs to seriously conserve power so that everyone will have power.  If this problem of shipping parts can happen once, it can and will happen again.

 

UPDATE: HELCO asks for continued energy con­ser­vation

BY SPECTRUM NEWS STAFF HAWAII ISLAND

UPDATED 6:28 PM ET APR. 16, 2024 PUBLISHED 9:05 AM ET APR. 15, 2024

HILO, Hawaii — Hawaiian Electric continues to urge Hawaii Island customers to reduce their electricity use to prevent the need for rolling outages.

In a news release Tuesday afternoon, the utility stated that Monday saw a reduced demand of approximately 5 megawatts. That, combined with increased wind and solar battery storage prevented the need for rolling blackouts on Monday. HELCO credited conservation efforts, particularly those by large businesses and government customers, for the reduction in electricity demand. 

“We’re grateful for our customers’ efforts to conserve electricity, especially between 5 to 9 p.m., when electricity us is highest, because it does make a difference,” said Hawaiian Electric spokesperson Kristen Okinaka. “By working together, we’re helping to ensure that enough power can be available for all customers and prevent or minimize the impacts of rolling outages.”

Hawaiian Electric announced Monday afternoon that it may initiate rolling outages in parts of Hawaii Island because of the unavailability of several generators and lower than normal wind and solar resources.

In a news release, the utility said that outages could start as early as 6:30 p.m. and rotate around the island for 30-minute intervals. The impacted areas and the timing of the outages will be based on wind generation and the amount of electric demand that needs to be reduced. Individuals who are dependent on electrically powered life support medical equipment are advised to arrange for a backup power supply.

The outages are being done to prevent power loss to even more customers, who are all being asked to conserve electricity throughout the month.

https://spectrumlocalnews.com/hi/hawaii/news/2024/04/15/heco-customers-on-hawaii-island-asked-to-conserve-power-

 

Big power supply problems continue to plague Hawaii Island

Apr 8, 2024

The company has been facing an unusual situation with mechanical problems at three of the island's five largest power plants while part of the largest plant undergoes an annual overhaul. All four of these affected power plants are owned by the utility or an affiliate of its parent company.

Also contributing to the trouble is lower output from a geothermal plant, which has the third-largest generation capacity on the island and is owned by an independent operator.

"This is an unusual situation, driven mainly by the unavailability of several large generators that have experienced mechanical problems, are at reduced output, or are undergoing maintenance, " Hawaiian Electric said in its March 25 announcement asking customers to use less electricity, especially on weekdays from 5 to 9 p.m.

The company explained that it faces an "extremely tight " supply of power at peak use periods, especially when production from wind, solar and hydroelectric facilities is lower than normal. Those sources of variable, renewable energy can supply up to 15% of electricity needs on the island.

"Without enough supply to meet electricity demand, the company may initiate rolling outages of up to an hour around the island, " the March 25 announcement said.

 https://energycentral.com/news/big-power-supply-problems-continue-plague-hawaii-island

 

Hawaii Island customers urged to reduce elec­tricity use through April

BY SARAH YAMANAKA HILO PUBLISHED 9:00 AM ET MAR. 26, 2024

What You Need To Know

-Hawaii Island customers may see alerts asking them to conserve energy, especially on days when there isn’t much wind that generates up to 15% of electricity

-When alerts are issued, Hawaiian Electric is asking customers to take immediate action to minimize electricity use

-Even when no alerts are issued, customers — including hotels and large retailers — are urged to reduce electricity use as much as possible, especially between 5 and 9 p.m. on weekdays

-If there is not enough electricity to meet demand, Hawaiian Electric may initiate rolling outages of up to an hour around the island

https://spectrumlocalnews.com/hi/hawaii/news/2024/03/25/hawaii-island-customers-urged-to-reduce-electricity-use-through-april

 


FURTHERMORE: TRAFFIC, LACK OF RESOURCES, AND FATALITIES

A Resort Development WILL Increase Traffic on Already Severely Trafficked Roads.  Are there traffic study reports for this EIS?

A development with 150 rooms comes with over 150+ cars.  Employees, guests, and visitors will all have cars, plus the regular locals who go there to paddle and enjoy the bay. All this could range in over 300 cars a day because of this resort development.

The Big Island already has a serious traffic issue due to a lack of infrastructure. This is in part due to poor planning, and in part due to geography challenges.  

The articles below by different NEWS companies highlight the point that many traffic issues stem from lack of infrastructure and resources. Adding more cars to the road by building another resort in an area that is already stressed, will only increase the already mounting problems with traffic.

This NEWS article by Hawai'i News Now, "Report shows alarming surge in Hawaii Island traffic deaths The Hawaii Police Department’s Traffic Services Section released a new report showing a dramatic increase in both major crashes and fatal accidents from last year.

The startling statistics show a dramatic increase in the number of year-over-year traffic fatalities on the Island of Hawaii, revealing major crashes are up more than 12% and traffic fatalities are up more than 100%." Watch the video on their link below as it is a professional report on Big Island traffic problems. https://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/2024/05/18/new-report-shows-hawaii-island-traffic-fatalities-are-up-over-100-last-year/

With more tourists there will be more accidents, more traffic, and more traffic deaths. Please read this article by KHON 2 NEWS, "Hawaii Island has most traffic fatalities in state. This time last year Hawaii Island was at five traffic deaths, as of April 1, 2024, they’re at 14.

Seven of which happened in the last two weeks.

Chief Moszkowicz said the police force is small compared to the size of the island and response times can take 15 to 20 minutes.

“We don’t have the resources like in the small space of Oahu where you can saturate an area to control speeding, that just doesn’t exist here,” he added." https://www.khon2.com/local-news/7-traffic-fatalities-for-hawaii-island-in-march/

The traffic on Big Island has increased drastically and safety issues and infrastructure needs to be addressed before adding more resort developments.

Please read this article because what it says about Oahu is a mirror for Big Island. The traffic problems they discuss are the same issues here on Big Island; and it also gives one Big Island example, "On the Big Island, the mayor had to issue an emergency order shutting down Waipio Valley Road due to overuse and poor prior maintenance." This is happening all over Big Island.  https://www.civilbeat.org/2024/02/angry-over-island-traffic-jams-lets-talk-about-solutions/

The news video below shows aerial footage in Hilo.  The footage shown is the same thing that is happening on Alii Drive and Queen K Highway, and for all the same reasons: All of these roads only have two lanes!

There are two developments already on Alii Drive being built as of today; and more are scheduled for this road in the near future. Alii Drive and Queen K Highway are the roads Kamehameha Schools Bungalow Resort  will be using if approved, and they are already seriously congested. 

These roads have the exact same traffic congestion as Hilo, with the exact same problems. Traffic is extremely slow because of so many people who now live here and all the visitors that come yearly.

In addition, the concern on Kona side is tsunami evacuations rather than lava evacuations. In this kind of traffic, not everyone will be able to get to safer ground, especially if you allow another resort to be developed in this area when traffic is already at a crawl every weekday and often on weekends as well.

Here is the news article by KITV NEWS that highlights the traffic issues discussed above:  "Hawaii Island traffic jams could have safety impact. In the event of an evacuation, Mayor Mitch Roth acknowledges that will make the Traffic Jam up even worse. But says, he is working with The State on a solution." https://www.kitv.com/news/local/hawaii-island-traffic-jams-could-have-safety-impact/article_b06a5374-5a6a-11ed-8d23-8313ef8c4c19.html  

There was a crash recently on Alii Drive (see video below).  When there is an accident on Alii Drive, it turns the already small two-lane road into only one lane that requires a flagger to help direct traffic. Kamehameha Schools wants to add a resort on this tiny road that will increase the traffic by hundreds of cars. 

Here is the Island News video on the crash on Alii Dr.   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FQSsnPDji8

Please see from these articles that traffic on Big Island is deadly already and adding another resort will be devastating to the island

Read this Path article, HAWAI’I COUNTY’S VISION ZERO INITIATIVE:

A motorcyclist is in critical condition after a collision with a car. A driver accidentally hits and kills a pedestrian. It seems that not a day goes by without the news reporting on a traffic crash on Hawai’i Island...

Here are some other statistics that are even more staggering:

-28% of roadside crashes were the result of someone leaving the roadway and going into barriers or trees

-13% of pedestrians hit at 20 mph actually suffer fatality

-73% of pedestrians hit at 40 mph suffer fatality

-25% of fatal crashes were the result of distracted driving… So PLEASE put those cell phones away and pay attention to the road!

-56% of fatal crashes were the result of alcohol or drugs

-41% of fatal crashes occurred in light trucks and vans

-49% of crashes occur during the day, outside of peak traffic hours

-Of all the crash fatalities, most were males between 20 to 24-years old.

“That’s just Big Island traffic,” is a common sentiment. But what if we didn’t have to accept this endangerment of vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and pedestrians as a way of life?"

This was taken from Path https://pathhawaii.org/hawaii-countys-vision-zero-initiative/

 

MORE ARTICLES HIGHLIGHTING INFRASTRUCTURE AND RESOURCE DEFICITS,  INCLUDING WATER, TRASH, ELECTRIC and WASTEWATER:

1)   Hawaii Deals with Burgeoning Waste Management Problem

As landfills face closure and waste-to-energy projects stall, various counties in Hawaii are dealing with waste management issues. Waste360 Staff January 10, 2020

“Hawaii Island is in the enviable position of having a landfill with anywhere from 20 to 100 years of capacity left to take in trash. But the island still wrestles with significant issues like plastic products that are no longer being recycled.” https://www.waste360.com/landfill/hawaii-deals-with-burgeoning-waste-management-problem

2) "Big Island Now readers seem to agree that there’s likely no single solution for slowing down the timeline of the West Hawai‘i Sanitary Landfill reaching capacity.

The West Hawai’i Sanitary Landfill, the only remaining landfill on the Big Island, is forecast to reach capacity within the next 20 to 25 years." https://bigislandnow.com/2023/09/17/big-island-now-poll-no-27-results-more-than-one-solution-needed-to-help-extend-life-of-west-hawaii-landfill/

3)   Hawaii Island Has Decades of Landfill Space But Still Faces Challenges In Dealing With Its Waste Hawaiʻi Public Radio Published January 9, 2020 at 5:00 AM HST 

“Hawaii Island is in the enviable position of having a landfill with anywhere from 20 to 100 years of capacity left to take in trash. But the island still wrestles with significant issues like plastic products that are no longer being recycled.  

For the past four decades, trash from the East side of Hawaii Island has been dumped in a landfill outside of Hilo. But now trash from all parts of the island is being trucked to a facility north of Kona.” https://www.hawaiipublicradio.org/local-news/2020-01-09/hawaii-island-has-decades-of-landfill-space-but-still-faces-challenges-in-dealing-with-its-waste

4)“What happens to Hawaii Island’s trash and recyclables? BY MICHELLE BRODER VANdyke HAWAII ISLAND PUBLISHED 11:30 AM ET DEC. 17, 2022 By Michelle Broder Vandyke Hawaii Island PUBLISHED 11:30 AM ET Dec. 1The future of the landfill

The West Hawaii Landfill will be full in about 20 years. Finding a location for the next landfill is a concern, according to the DEM officials. They said it will be challenging to find a location for a future landfill because of stringent regulations and costs related to planning, environmental regulations, design and construction that will take many years to complete. It will also require community support.” https://spectrumlocalnews.com/hi/hawaii/news/2022/12/15/what-happens-to-hawaii-island-s-trash-and-recyclables--

5)  “The overwhelming plastic waste Hawaii visitors leave behind
By Natasha Bourlin Aug 24, 2023

 Hawaii saw more than 9 million visitors last year. Those tourists’ first stops are often big-box and convenience stores, where they buy bottled water, plastic sand toys, single-use bodyboards, noodles, floaties and inner tubes for their trips.”  https://www.sfgate.com/hawaii/article/plastic-waste-hawaii-visitors-leave-behind-18286076.php

6) “A County commission drafts ordinance aiming to ban recyclables at West Hawai‘i landfill By Megan Moseley September 6, 2023 · 1:00 AM HST
* Updated September 6, 2023 · 2:02 PM

Hawai‘i County’s Environmental Management Commission is developing an ordinance that aims to prohibit the amount of recyclable materials ending up in the island’s only working landfill.” https://bigislandnow.com/2023/09/06/new-draft-ordinance-aims-to-ban-recyclables-at-west-hawaii-landfill/

7) ” Hawai‘i County issues mandatory 25% water restriction for North Kona August 7, 2023 · 5:21 PM HST

A mandatory 25% water restriction has been issued for various communities in North Kona due to the failure of the Honokōhau Deepwell over the weekend.” https://bigislandnow.com/2023/08/07/hawaii-county-issues-mandatory-25-water-restriction-for-north-kona/

8) “Hawaiʻi Water Supply Closely Monitored As Severe Drought Continues by Big Island Video Newson Nov 6, 2023 at 3:28 pm STORY SUMMARY

HAWAIʻI COUNTY - Officials say a special focus will be placed on the South Kohala Water System, which is more susceptible to drought conditions.” https://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2023/11/06/water-supply-closely-monitored-as-hawai%CA%BBi-under-severe-drought/

9) “Big Island Concerns About Water Quality Prompt A Lawsuit Over A Kona Sewage Plant Kealakehe sewage plant discharges more than 1 million gallons of wastewater into a lava pit near the ocean. By Paula Dobbyn   / February 6, 2024

Settlement talks are scheduled in an environmental lawsuit involving a county-operated Big Island sewage plant in Kona.” https://www.civilbeat.org/2024/02/concerns-about-water-quality-prompt-a-lawsuit-over-a-kona-sewage-plant/

10) “Researchers find sewage from an oceanfront Big Island community reaches nearshore waters Hawaiʻi Public Radio | By Russell Subiono, Sophia McCullough Published December 20, 2021 at 5:56 PM HST

There are nearly 50,000 cesspools on the Big Island, with tens of thousands posing a risk to water resources, according to the Hawaiʻi Department of Health.” https://www.hawaiipublicradio.org/the-conversation/2021-12-20/researchers-find-sewage-from-an-oceanfront-big-island-community-reaches-nearshore-waters


11) ”Kona coast faces stark wastewater tradeoffs, Current situation

There are approximately 88,000 cesspools across the state, releasing more than 200,000 cubic meters of wastewater per day to the environment. https://www.hawaii.edu/news/2021/09/10/kona-stark-wastewater-tradeoffs/

We ask that you start figuring out how this can never happen again? These are the kind of issues that need to be resolved before you approve more development.

12) "HELCO restores power after initiating emergency outages on Big Island by: Elizabeth 'Ufi Posted: Jan 30, 2024 / 09:43 AM HST Updated: Jan 30, 2024 / 04:15 PM HST

An unexpected loss of several large Hawaii Electric generators left some residents on Big Island without power for parts of the morning on Tuesday, Jan. 30." https://www.khon2.com/big-island-news/heco-initiates-30-min-rolling-outages-after-loss-of-generators/

13) Hawai'i State News Update: Hawaiian Electric initiates rolling outages throughout Big Island February 13, 2024 · 5:23 PM HST
* Updated February 14, 2024 · 4:21 PM

The emergency outages are being initiated in various areas around the entire island to prevent loss of power to an even greater number of customers. The timing and extent of the outages will depend on the amount of demand on the system and the availability of generators.” https://bigislandnow.com/2024/02/13/hawaii-island-customers-asked-to-reduce-electricity-use/

14) HELCO issues rolling power outages around Big Island by: Emily Cervantes Posted: Feb 13, 2024 / 05:11 PM HST Updated: Feb 13, 2024 / 09:12 PM HST  Hawaiian Electric initiated rolling outages for Big Island after several large generators became unavailable and reduced output Tuesday night.”
https://www.khon2.com/local-news/heco-releases-conservation-alert-for-big-island/

15) "Here's how power outages can have repercussions for Hawaiʻi's water supply Hawaiʻi Public Radio | By Savannah Harriman-Pote
Published February 13, 2024 at 10:59 AM HST

Water departments on Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island have advised customers to conserve water ahead of possible storm-related power outages this month.

But what does the power grid have to do with the water supply?

It is impossible to separate Hawaiʻi's power system from its water system, said Kawika Uyehara, deputy director of Hawaiʻi County's Department of Water Supply." https://www.hawaiipublicradio.org/local-news/2024-02-13/residents-on-hawaii-island-and-oahu-are-asked-to-conserve-water-amid-power-outages

16) US Hawaii is "on the verge of a greater catastrophe," locals say, as water crisis continues

By Li Cohen

Updated on: April 11, 2024 / 8:23 AM EDT / CBS News

In Hawaii, one of the most important sayings is ola i ka wai, "water is life" — a phrase that not only sums up what it means to exist on an island, but what it means to live, period. But now, one of the largest of the island chain's land masses is facing a triple threat to its sole freshwater source, and if it isn't addressed soon, one community member says, "We're in deep trouble."

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/hawaii-water-crisis-climate-change/

17) News Hawai‘i County issues mandatory 25% water restriction for North Kona
August 7, 2023 · 5:21 PM HS

A mandatory 25% water restriction has been issued for various communities in North Kona due to the failure of the Honokōhau Deepwell over the weekend.

https://bigislandnow.com/2023/08/07/hawaii-county-issues-mandatory-25-water-restriction-for-north-kona/

18) Hawaiʻi Water Supply Closely Monitored As Severe Drought Continues
 
by Big Island Video News
on Nov 6, 2023 at 3:28 pm

(BIVN) – With an ongoing drought on the island of Hawaiʻi, the Hawaiʻi County Department of Water Supply says it is closely monitoring its 23 public water systems, with a “special focus” placed on the South Kohala Water System.

https://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2023/11/06/water-supply-closely-monitored-as-hawai%CA%BBi-under-severe-drought/

This is a map of Power Outages on the Big Island. This map wouldn't have been created if Power Outages were not a problem.  https://www.hawaiianelectric.com/safety-and-outages/power-outages/hawaii-island-outage-map

Please, give Tax Breaks to all homes that provide solar and/or wind turbine to there homes to help with power issues on the island.

19) "Hawaiian Electric is reporting that several large generators on the Big Island are experiencing a range of issues and may lead to the need for rolling outages if supply does not meet demand."

https://www.reddit.com/r/BigIsland/comments/1bnuar3/hawaiian_electric_is_reporting_that_several_large/?rdt=52660

20) “Hawaiian Electric asking Big Island customers to conserve power due to down generators

March 25, 2024 · 11:49 AM HST 

According to the utility company, this is an usual situation as the large generators are experiencing mechanical problems resulting in a reduced output. The largest generator, an independent power producer that sells electricity to Hawaiian Electric, is offline with significant mechanical issues.

The plant generates 60 megawatts or nearly one-third of the typical peak demand of 180 megawatts on the island."

https://bigislandnow.com/2024/03/25/hawaiian-electric-asking-big-island-customers-to-conserve-power-due-to-down-generators/

All the articles above show that a resort development will further deplete and stress resources and infrastructure on an island already struggling.  There are years of new development that have already been approved but not completed.  It is not responsible or prudent to continue to develop this resort under these current conditions.

 

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE:

The Law of the Splintered Paddle

Hawaiian history tells us that young Kamehameha was once an aggressive chief. The story goes that the young chief even chased after two fishermen in a Puna fishing village. While pursuing them, his foot got stuck in a crevice, and one of the fishermen struck Kamehameha over the head with his paddle in defense, which splintered into pieces.

After the incident, Kamehameha recognized that it was wrong to misuse his power and learned compassion. Years later, Kamehameha declared a new law “Ke Kānāwai Māmalahoe” or “the Law of the Splintered Paddle.” Meant to protect the innocent and vulnerable from unprovoked attacks, this law proclaimed that the defenseless, especially kupuna and keiki, be able to sleep safely on the side of the road, unharmed.

The law provided for the safety of non-warriors during wartime and became the first written law of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. After being added back in 1978, the law is part of Hawaii’s State Constitution today.

It is symbolic of servant leadership, reinforcing the importance of:

-Caring for and serving one’s people

-Knowing and doing what is pono (right)

-Standing for the principle that leadership privilege is earned

-Taking kuleana (responsibility) for those we serve

-Doing so with compassion, love, and respect

“We take that to mean that anyone who uses our roadways should be able to do so without fear of harm,” explains Tina."

The Law of the Splintered Paddle is also on Kamehameha Schools website.  The historical value of this law should be enough to help make

Big Island roads become safer, and not adding to the traffic and issues of our already dangerous roads.  https://www.ksbe.edu/article/the-lessons-of-the-law-of-the-splintered-paddle-ring-true-200-years-after-k

Does this EIS have any reports about how this development will safely add to the land fill on Big Island, and are there reports proving the island has enough water for another big resort, what about reports on how much power this resort will use because the Big Island already has serious resource and infrastructure issues. 


IN CONCLUSION

The articles cited in this letter, many by some of the most esteemed scientists in the world, show with clarity that allowing this development is going to cause devastating, lasting, effects on the Eco-system in Keauhou Bay and  "The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting and conserving imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The Supreme Court of the United States described it as "the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species enacted by any nation".[1]" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_Species_Act_of_1973

This location, currently acting as a natural filter, is especially vulnerable due to having a golf course on one side and a natural treasure like Keauhou Bay on the other. This land MUST be conserved in order to keep Keauhou Bay safe for all the marine life to be able to live there for years to come.

In addition to the natural disaster this will cause, Hawai’i Island is already having serious infrastructure and resource issues that have yet to be solved. These issues MUST be solved before considering another resort development on Big Island.

We need to work in harmony with the land and the people before pushing forward with new developments, especially in sacred and special places like Keauhou Bay, the birthplace of King Kamehameha III.  Keauhou Bay is a small, fragile Eco-system, that is already pressured by boating, golfing, population issues, and hotels that are all around the entire bay.  

The trees that currently stand on the land that is threatened to be developed clearly protects the marine life and environment from further damage.  The location is NOT suitable for this kind of development for both environmental and infrastructure reasons. 

The cost of what stands to be lost is far too high to allow this to happen.

Please save Keauhou Bay's marine life and help the island's resources by saying NO to a Bungalow Resort built by Kamehameha Schools.

Mahalo,